The development of the papillomavirus is considered extremely dangerous for the human body. The earlier the pathology is detected, the less serious the consequences. The tests will ultimately help determine HPV. To do this, laboratories today offer enough methods that recognize not only the presence of the pathogen itself, but also its type. This makes it easier for the specialist to choose the right treatment tactics.
Briefly about the papillomavirus and its consequences
Among gynecological diseases, HPV is quite common. Typically, those who enter into an active sex life are infected. Most types of infection do not cause serious problems and will heal on their own, especially with a strong immune system.
Heads up! The most insidious are the varieties included in the high oncogenic risk group. Such forms can persist in the body for a long time and turn into malignant neoplasms.
There are three degrees of oncogenicity of the pathogen. It has been proven that a patient can become a carrier of several types of papillomavirus at the same time.
In the presence of papillomavirus infection, the whole body suffers, but mainly the reproductive system. The pathology affects the lower and upper genitals and the anus. If the disease is not treated in a timely manner, the following consequences appear:
- Cancer of the vagina, cervix, vulva, penis.
- cervical carcinoma.
- verruciform dysplasia.
The infection does not always lead to such serious complications. But with the appearance of papillomas and warts on the body, it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible. The infection is not transmitted genetically from the mother or father. But the chances of having a child in this case are small. Often, the presence of a pathogen causes a miscarriage.
Analysis for the determination of human papillomavirus in the body
The virus does not manifest itself for a long time. Thanks to analysis, it is easy to recognize the disease even at an early stage and choose an effective treatment. This helps to anticipate a potential threat to the patient's health.
To recognize HPV, advanced liquid tests have been specially developed. A wide variety of them are used as prophylaxis or to obtain the necessary information about the disease. In laboratories, the following types of research are considered in demand:
|PCR||Spittle; urine; discharge from the genitals; amniotic fluid.||It determines the pathogen's DNA and its amount in the blood when there are still no symptoms of the disease. The diagnosis is made in people with HRC. Extended typing is possible.|
|Quantum 21||A smear taken from the site of infection.||It reveals the nature of the genotype, its quantitative components.|
|amplification test||Vaginal scraping.||It shows the concentration of infection in the blood, the degree of oncological danger.|
|Cytology (Pap smear)||A smear of the urethra and urogenital canal.||Recognizes the developmental class of the pathology. The method has a high probability of erroneous indicators.|
|Histology||Biopsy (a piece of organ tissue).||Allows you to separate the condyloma from the tumor.|
Among other methods, a blood test for antibodies against HPV is used. During the incubation period, the viral load is small, so the indicators will be inaccurate, which requires a second examination.
Some countries are implementing effective screening and therapy programs.
Currently, three types are available:
- Tests for highly oncogenic papillomavirus strains.
- Pap smear and liquid cytology.
- Application of acetic acid in visual inspection.
It's important to know! Thanks to the screening program, cervical oncology is determined at an early stage. This increases the chances of a complete cure.
Indications to perform
Virus scanning is available to everyone, even if there are no characteristic symptoms. Some consider it necessary as a preventive measure or to prevent the growth and development of oncological processes. Experts recommend testing in the following cases:
- The presence of papillomas on the skin and mucous membranes.
- To confirm questionable cytology results.
- Pathological discharge from the vagina.
- Suspected in oncology women with dysplasia.
- Patient's personal concerns.
- Violation of urination.
- Planning pregnancy, infertility.
An in-depth study of this pathology prevents the development of the body's susceptibility to other infections, such as the herpes simplex virus (HSV).
Epithelial tissue serves as the main biomaterial in diagnostic procedures. To do this, take an HPV smear. Very rarely, amniotic fluid, blood, urine, vaginal discharge are studied.
If a histology is requested, a biopsy is done. The process of obtaining it is painful, as with the help of a special device the affected tissue is torn out.
Preparation for analysis
Patients with experience in such procedures note that it does not hurt, the material is removed without any discomfort. But preparation requires a serious approach. In doing so, the following must be taken into account:
- You just need to donate blood on an empty stomach.
- Limit the use of drugs and alcohol.
- Do not use cosmetics and tampons.
- Drink only pure water.
- Reduce emotional and physical stress on the body.
- Temporarily give up intimate relationships.
You need to prepare for lab activities in advance. On the day of the smear, it is recommended to wash the genitals. You must refrain from urinating 2 hours before the procedure. Compliance with such rules helps to obtain more accurate indicators. Otherwise, the test will show a false negative result or vice versa.
Performing the procedure on women
Getting a referral for HPV tests, many have no idea what it is and how it is performed on women. You can find out the details of why this or that procedure is necessary from the treating physician or on information websites.
To perform tests for papillomavirus in women, as in men, scrapings are often done. With the help of a brush used in gynecology, the necessary biomaterial is removed from the mucous membranes of Organs genital organs and sent to the laboratory. You can start diagnosing after 5 days after your period ends.
Clinical laboratories monitor that all conditions of the diagnostic procedure have been correctly observed. For this, KVM or material collection control is used. This test shows whether the amount of epithelium studied corresponds to the norm.
Sampling of biomaterials from men
Many have an idea of how the biomaterial is taken for HPV testing in women. But not everyone knows how this process occurs in men. The fence is made from the urethra, so it is often called urethral. So that no microorganism enters the material under study, the intimate area is first cleaned. After that, the genital organ should be treated with sterile saline solution and dried.
The doctor makes a general smear of the flora of the urethra using a special probe. The resulting material is placed on a glass slide and examined under a microscope. The technology makes it possible to determine only the presence of bacteria and infections.
More reveals the image of a smear for latent infections. The principle of its implementation is the same as in the first case. Only the material obtained is placed in a special solution and delivered to the laboratory. There it is studied and the DNA of the pathogens is determined.
Study terms and stages
As soon as signs of weakened immunity appear, papillomas or condylomas appear on the skin, the body needs to be examined. The diagnosis of HPV has several steps:
- Visual examination by a doctor: for women - gynecologist, for men - urologist.
- Blood donation.
- Performing a biopsy.
During a clinical examination, the doctor may see external signs of pathology. For a deeper examination, he prescribes laboratory diagnostic methods.
Each clinic sets its own deadlines for obtaining results.
Many clinics report results quickly, and the price list is much higher than others. Cost does not always affect quality. Cheap labs also have good reviews.
deciphering the results
Patients who have undergone the necessary examination want to know as soon as possible if there is reason to be worried or if it is possible to live in peace. With a general interpretation of the results, familiarization usually takes place on the Internet. They are usually issued in the form of a table. For the convenience of specialists, color markers are used. But it is important not to rush to conclusions, as the attending physician must establish an accurate diagnosis based on the general history and the data obtained.
It's important to know! Good results will be those where all samples are negative. This means that the patient is not likely to develop complications, especially the transition from pathology to malignant neoplasms. In this case, the therapy has a favorable prognosis.
The situation looks much more complicated with positive indicators. These patients are considered high risk. In the future, additional diagnoses are needed, which is important to determine the stage of the disease and exclude oncology. The patient needs constant medical supervision.
Other diagnostic methods
When a disease is detected, instrumental diagnostic methods are sometimes used. They are often used as a supplement to see changes taking place in the body. To this end, designate:
- Colposcopy. With the help of a special device, the cervix is examined. Thanks to a multiple magnification, the doctor can detect warts that have appeared.
- Pelvic ultrasound.
These diagnostic methods are often used when the disease progresses and affects organs and their systems. In terms of cost, they are slightly lower than laboratory tests.
According to experts, the diagnosis for the presence of papillomavirus in young people should be regular. This is especially true for those at risk. This approach reduces the chance of developing cancer.