Warts are small neoplasms located in different parts of the skin. This is a widespread pathology, according to various sources, about every 3 adults and every 2 children are sick. The cause of its appearance is a viral infection (human papillomavirus). Warts on the hands are one of the most common locations. Not all formations are subject to removal; in some cases, the growths pass on their own. To get rid of the pathology, minimally invasive methods of treatment are used.
What is that
Warts are benign neoplasms that are not prone to malignancy. They can appear on any part of the skin: face, palms, fingers, soles of the feet, genitals. 2 types of neoplasms appear on the hands - common and flat.
Warts on the hands can be single or multiple. They are characterized by the following characteristics:
- the color can be flesh, brown or grayish;
- the size varies from 3 mm to 1. 5 cm;
- usually look like a small lump (seen in the photo).
Usually, its appearance is not accompanied by any symptoms. The formation is painless, sometimes itchy skin may appear.
The disease can develop in anyone, but children get sick more often. People with weakened immune systems are also more susceptible to infection.
Causes of warts on the hands
The cause of pathology on the hands is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. There are several ways the infection can spread:
- direct contact with a handshake, touch;
- indirect infection through common objects: doorknobs, handrails, elevator buttons;
- home infection, when multiple people use the same towel or other personal hygiene item.
From infection to the first manifestations of the pathology, it usually takes several months, during which the wart grows to 0. 5-1 cm.
Not everyone who comes into contact with a source of infection develops warts. In many ways, the probability of infection depends on the state of immunity. Predisposing factors include:
- any somatic diseases that affect the state of the immune system;
- dermatological diseases;
- very dry hand skin;
- increased sweating of the palms.
The occurrence of the pathology is also facilitated by the frequent traumatization of the skin of the hands: the habit of biting nails, biting fingers and pulling out burrs. An important role is played by non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene.
2 types of neoplasms appear on the hands: common (vulgar) and flat. The differences are in the location, shape, size and treatment approach.
Common warts are the most common form of the disease. They mostly occur in adults, but children can get sick too. Located on the fingers, on the back surface of the hand, in the interdigital spaces.
What they look like:
- size 0. 5–1. 5 cm;
- rise above the skin;
- more often single;
- have uneven and rough surfaces.
This is a relatively rare form of the disease, occurring in 4-5% of cases. Flat warts mostly occur at a young age, hence their other name - young. They are located on the back surface of the hands. The formations are usually multiple, appear in groups. They are small nodules up to 0. 5 cm in size, which barely rise above the surface of the skin.
Clinical evidence is usually sufficient for the diagnosis. The shape and size of the formation, as well as the absence of discomfort in the affected area, are taken into account. The doctor may prescribe additional tests to rule out malignant tumors and other skin conditions. Which studies can be attributed:
|diagnostic method||Indications for the study, explanation|
|dermoscopy||Allows you to examine skin formation under 10x magnification. With the help of dermoscopy, you can assess the edges of the neoplasm, symmetry or asymmetry, color, surface and other parameters. The study is performed for all patients to determine whether the formation needs to be removed or not.|
|Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)||To determine HPV infection. With the help of a study, one can not only confirm or disprove the presence of an infection, but also determine the type of HPV (carcinogenic, non-cancerous).|
|histological examination||The main diagnostic method. Postoperative histological examination allows a diagnosis to be made with a probability of 100%.|
What to do for the patient
Not all warts need to be removed. In children, these formations in most cases pass on their own, without requiring medical intervention. In adults, they are also rarely dangerous.
In which cases surgical intervention may be necessary:
- education begins to grow rapidly;
- the number increases;
- frequent trauma occurs;
- there are signs of malignancy (asymmetry, rapid growth, etc. ).
In any case, the decision to remove must be made by the physician after a thorough examination of the patient.
Hand warts treatment
There are many ways to get rid of pathology. The choice depends on several factors: the general condition of the body, the number of formations, their size and variety. The essence of the treatment is to remove the wart with the help of special preparations, laser, liquid nitrogen, electric current. Given the viral nature of the disease, antiviral treatment is additionally prescribed, which aims to prevent relapses.
Cryodestruction is a treatment method based on exposure to liquid nitrogen. Exposure to low temperatures leads to tissue freezing and death.
Freezing is carried out using a special applicator. How is the treatment:
- the wart is treated with an antiseptic solution;
- an applicator is applied perpendicularly to its surface with light pressure;
- the exposure time depends on the size of the formation and is from 5 to 30 seconds.
Education under the action of liquid nitrogen turns pale, becomes denser. After 1 to 2 minutes, the freezing zone becomes red and swollen, then a small blister appears, which persists for up to 1 week, gradually decreasing. In its place, a crust appears, which is rejected after 1-2 weeks, leaving no visible scarring changes on the skin.
Cryosurgery for the treatment of warts is most often used, which is associated with several advantages of this method:
- ease of use and accessibility;
- no postoperative scar.
Disadvantages of cryodestruction include the need to repeat the procedure, as complete destruction of the formation is rarely achieved in 1 session.
Electrocoagulation is a treatment method in which a surgical coagulator is used to remove the formation. Electrocoagulation is based on the effect of electrical current. This treatment method is used to remove common warts.
How is the treatment:
- local anesthesia is performed;
- with the help of a metal loop, to which a high-frequency current is supplied, the wart is removed;
- the removed formation is sent for histological examination.
The advantages of clotting include a low risk of postoperative complications, as tissue heating stops bleeding and the spread of infection.
The permanence of a scar after this treatment depends on the depth of the lesion.
Laser wart removal is one of the most modern methods of treatment. Depending on the type of laser, this treatment is based on coagulation or evaporation.
The treatment is carried out under local anesthesia. The wart is removed by laser in layers, the duration of the procedure is 2-3 minutes.
Postoperative complications are extremely rare, a small depression remains at the site of removal of the formation.
The traditional method of getting rid of the disease is surgical excision of the formation. Treatment consists of a minor operation under local anesthesia. Surgical excision is usually prescribed for a large lesion when other methods are ineffective.
A scalpel or other surgical instruments may be used to remove the wart. After excision of the formation, cosmetic sutures are applied to the skin, which are removed on the 5-7th day. After the sutures are removed, a small scar remains on the skin.
Unfortunately, there are no specific medications that would get rid of the papillomavirus infection. You can use local preparations in the form of creams and ointments.
Folk remedies: help or not
For home treatment, folk remedies are often used: celandine juice, linseed oil, onion, mountain ash, thuja. Folk recipes are based on treating affected areas with herbal remedies that have a cauterizing or destructive effect.
Treatment with folk remedies does not lead to a complete cure. Even if you go out to cauterize the wart, after a while it grows back. Such treatment often leads to the development of complications.
Prognosis and complications
The prognosis is almost always favorable. In some cases, warts go away on their own, more often they persist for a long time but do not bring significant discomfort. An unfavorable prognosis is usually associated with the development of complications:
- adhesion of bacterial flora;
- damage to surrounding tissues;
Complications are relatively rare, usually associated with frequent trauma or inadequate treatment of the disease.
The biggest problem in the treatment of the pathology is the frequent relapses. Given the viral nature of the disease, surgical removal of the formations also does not guarantee a complete cure.